Lead-acid batteries are a kind of chemical power source. A chemical power source is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy, generally called a battery. Primary batteries mainly refer to batteries that are discharged once and cannot be recharged; secondary batteries refer to batteries that can be repeatedly charged and discharged. Lead-acid batteries are secondary batteries.
The positive active material of lead-acid batteries is lead dioxide (PbO2), the negative active material is lead (Pb), the electrolyte is dilute sulfuric acid, the positive and negative electrodes are separated by a separator, and the ions in the electrolyte can pass through the separator. The micropores, but the electrons on the electrode cannot pass through the separator. After the lead-acid battery is discharged, the active material lead dioxide (PbO2) on the positive plate is converted into lead sulfate (PbSO4), which adheres to the positive plate, and the negative active material lead (Pb) is also converted into lead sulfate (PbSO4), which adheres to On the negative plate, the sulfuric acid in the electrolyte diffuses into the electrode plate, and the concentration of the electrolyte decreases. When charging, the opposite reaction occurs. In this way, the lead-acid battery can be used repeatedly, until the storage capacity does not meet the requirements of the electrical appliances, the life is terminated.
Lead-acid batteries are composed of positive plates, negative plates, separators, electrolyte, plastic tanks, connectors, and poles. According to the state of electrolyte, it is divided into rich liquid battery and lean liquid battery. According to the structure of the acid injection hole, it is divided into an open battery and a valve-regulated battery. According to different purposes, it is divided into starting batteries, batteries for mopeds, batteries for backup power, energy storage batteries, marine batteries, batteries for railway locomotives, batteries for miners’ lamps, batteries for power, etc.
The rated voltage of a lead-acid battery cell is 2V, and a battery can be made up of multiple cells in series to form 2V, 6V, 12V, 24V and other batteries; the capacity of lead-acid batteries can be as small as 0.3A·h or as large as Several thousand ampere hours, basically any size can be achieved.
Lead-acid batteries are widely used in various aspects of the national economy and people’s lives, and are widely used.
The battery used in automobiles, tractors, engineering vehicles, etc. is mainly used for starting the engine. It is called the starting battery. It is one of the most used batteries. The starting battery is generally rated at 12V and has a capacity of 36~200A·h. The size of the exhaust volume, the configuration of different batteries, the greater the exhaust volume, the larger the capacity of the battery configured. The size of the battery used for starting is roughly divided into the external dimensions specified by the Chinese standard, the American standard, the European standard, the Japanese standard, and the International Electrotechnical Commission standard according to the different installed models. The starting battery is generally a high-liquid maintenance-free battery. The starting battery works by discharging at a high current of 150~600A when starting. After the car is started, the car’s charging system charges the battery, and the battery stays in a charged state for a long time.
The rapid development of electric bicycles is mainly due to the development of lead-acid battery technology and the substantial improvement in quality. Generally, three or four lead-acid batteries for electric bicycles are used with a rated voltage of 12v and a capacity of 10A·h or 12A. ·H’s lead-acid battery is characterized by large discharge depth and long charging time during use, which is the so-called deep charge and deep discharge. Batteries for electric power-assisted vehicles are required to have a long life, so they are one of the batteries with higher technical difficulty in battery production.
Lead-acid batteries for backup power supply are widely used in many fields such as electricity and communications. They are generally fixed valve-regulated batteries. A single battery with a rated voltage of 2V and 12V is generally used by multiple batteries in series.