The development of starting batteries

The development of starting batteries

Starting batteries are one of the most widely used and most used batteries in lead-acid batteries. Cars need 1 or 2 12V lead-acid batteries (some also use 6V or 36V batteries). The function of the car is to start the starter with the electric energy of the battery when starting to drive the car’s engine. This is the most important thing. It also bears the role of ignition and lighting, so it is also called SIL battery.

The use of starting batteries has its own characteristics. First, the high-current discharge performance is better. This is mainly determined according to the requirements of car starting. Because car starters generally require an instantaneous current of 160-600A, the battery must have this performance. Generally, starting batteries have thinner plates, higher porosity of active materials on the plates, denser ribs on the grid, and a larger amount of electrolyte, which should be considered for high-current discharge. In addition, after the car is started, the charger on the car charges the battery. Under normal circumstances, the depth of discharge is not large, and it tends to be overcharged for a long time. Therefore, the starting battery is required to have good anti-overcharge performance. In the winter in the cold northern regions, because the temperature is too low, starting is difficult, and the electric energy consumed during starting increases. Therefore, the storage battery used in the cold zone must have good cold start performance.

Early starting batteries used hard rubber tanks and independent small covers. The cells were connected by external connecting strips. The small covers were bonded to the tank with asphalt glue. The partitions were rubber partitions and grids. Gravity casting of Gaojin or Zhongbu alloy, this kind of battery is very heavy, it needs to be supplemented with pure water once after one to two months of use. If there is a problem with the single grid, it can be disassembled and repaired. At present, this kind of battery has been eliminated. Plastic slot battery refers to the battery whose slot cover is made of PP, ABS and other materials. At present, except for special batteries, all commonly used batteries basically use plastic slot covers. Plastic slot batteries have gone through the process of open-type ordinary batteries, low-maintenance batteries, and maintenance-free batteries. These batteries are now in use. With the increasing requirements for environmental protection, open-type batteries will be gradually eliminated.

The maintenance performance of the starting battery refers to the performance of the battery that needs to be supplemented with water after the battery loses water. That is to say, the battery with a lot of water loss should be frequently added with water, which is called water maintenance; maintenance-free means that the battery does not need to be added during the service life, and it is not that the battery does not need maintenance. This is just a professional name (this name is indeed Misunderstanding among consumers). There are many maintenance aspects of the battery, including the need to charge when it loses power, the battery needs to be cleaned regularly, and the terminals are checked.

An open battery means that each cell has an acid injection hole, and there is a plug on the hole, which has the function of exhausting and preventing acid from splashing. When checking the density and state of the battery electrolyte, you can unscrew the exhaust plug to observe the situation Or test. When the electrolyte level is lower than the requirement, pure water can be added. The battery electrolyte can be poured out after the service life of this kind of storage battery, but it will pollute the environment if it is poured out at will. As the maintenance-free performance of the battery has been greatly improved, the battery for starting can be maintained without water for life. The maintenance-free battery with a large sealed cover has become the mainstream product. The battery cannot be filled with water or poured out the electrolyte. At present, this kind of accumulator has gradually replaced ordinary accumulators with acid injection holes.

Dry-charged batteries are stored without electrolyte. At the beginning of use, a sulfuric acid electrolyte with a density of 1.28g/cm² is injected into the acid injection hole of the lead-acid battery. Generally, it is installed directly without charging or charging for a short time. When you get to the car, you can start the car’s battery. Dry charging refers to a battery that is already charged in a state without liquid. This kind of battery is mainly for storage convenience. It can be stored for a long time. Generally, it will have charging performance for 3 years and can be used for 10 years.

The battery production process and materials used are gradually improving. In the past, the battery used high antimony or medium antimony alloy for starting the battery, and the grid was produced by gravity casting, and gradually developed into the use of lead-calcium alloy, using the drawing or continuous casting and rolling process. The production of starting batteries not only greatly improves the production efficiency, but also greatly reduces the weight of the grid and greatly reduces the cost. Battery separators have also developed from rubber separators to sintered PVC, 10G separators to PE bag separators. In the past, the plate production of starter batteries used the production method of plate formation (slot formation), and now battery formation is the mainstay.

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